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Complete Study of Corona-virus structure, Vaccines, Drug discovery, Infectious diseases

This article cover the information on Subject terms: SARS virus, Vaccines, Drug discovery, Infectious diseases

Genomes and structures of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The typical coronavirus (CoV) genome is a single‑stranded, non‑segmented RNA genome, which is approximately 26–32 kb. It contains 5ʹ‑methylated caps and 3ʹ‑polyadenylated tails and is arranged in the order of 5ʹ, replicase genes, genes encoding structural proteins (spike glycoprotein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane protein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N)), polyadenylated tail and then the 3ʹ end. The partially overlapping 5ʹ‑terminal open reading frame 1a/b (ORF1a/b) is within the 5ʹ two‑thirds of the CoV genome and encodes the large replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) and pp1ab. These polyproteins are cleaved by papain‑like cysteine protease (PLpro) and 3C‑like serine protease (3CLpro) to produce non‑structural proteins, including RNA‑dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and helicase (Hel), which are important enzymes involved in the transcription and replication of CoVs. The 3ʹ one‑third of the CoV genome encodes the structural proteins (S, E, M and N), which are essential for virus–cell‑receptor binding and virion assembly, and other non‑structural proteins and accessory proteins that may have immunomodulatory effects297. Particle image from REF. 296, Nature Publishing Group. MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrom

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