COVID-19 Central Research Database
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Blog Posts (110)

  • Teenager Develops Possible Treatment ... Awarded $25,000!!!

    A teenage girl in Texas is getting national recognition for her work on a potential treatment for COVID-19 ... and she's already getting paid. Anika Chebrolu, a 14-year-old freshman at Independence High School in Frisco, is being hailed as the country's top young scientist ... and she won $25,000 for her potential coronavirus breakthrough. Anika won the 3M Young Scientist Challenge for her hard work identifying a potential drug to treat COVID-19. The brilliant student says she developed -- while in the 8th grade -- a molecule that binds to a protein on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and essentially stops the virus from functioning. A brilliant discovery for an adult, much less a kid. This part will blow your mind, unless you're a scientist -- Anika says she started with a database of over 682 million compounds and used a few computer programs to figure out how and where the molecule would bind to the virus. We'll take her word for it. Anika was still in middle school when she entered the contest and was initially planning her science project around finding ways to combat seasonal flu. But, like many pro scientists, she pivoted when the pandemic hit. She says she drew inspiration from stories about people suffering from COVID-19 ... and she's also crediting her grandpa, a chemistry professor, for steering her toward science. Ref Credit and Sourc of Information https://www.tmz.com/2020/10/16/texas-teen-wins-prize-developing-potential-covid-19-treatment/?fbclid=IwAR1EmjgC_3JcxgMWjFeu7rn_BgjAPY4Nr2cH3V8jwir6zUqxRg_pEwdnI7E

  • Diagnosis process of Covid-19 : How to Obtain a Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimen

    Collection of specimens from the surface of the respiratory mucosa with nasopharyngeal swabs is a procedure used for the diagnosis of Covid-19 in adults and children.1-4 The procedure is also commonly used to evaluate patients with suspected respiratory infection caused by other viruses and some bacteria. This video describes the collection of nasopharyngeal specimens for detection of Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are no specific contraindications for collecting specimens with nasopharyngeal swabs. However, clinicians should be cautious if the patient has had recent nasal trauma or surgery, has a markedly deviated nasal septum, or has a history of chronically blocked nasal passages or severe coagulopathy. Preparation and Equipment Nasopharyngeal swabs are specifically manufactured to have long, flexible shafts made of plastic or metal and tips made of polyester, rayon, or flocked nylon. In addition to nasopharyngeal swabs, you will need personal protective equipment (PPE), including a gown, nonsterile gloves, a protective mask, and a face shield, as described below. Make sure that all sample tubes have been labeled and that the appropriate requisition forms have been filled out before starting the procedure. Figure 1. Personal Protective Equipment.It is essential that you follow the pertinent respiratory and contact precautions specified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and by your own institution and that you put on the PPE correctly (Figure 1). If possible, you should put on and take off the PPE in the presence of an observer to make sure there are no breaks in technique that may pose a risk of contamination. First, put on a protective gown, wash your hands with soap and water (or use an alcohol-based solution), and put on a pair of nonsterile gloves. Then put on a protective mask with a rating of N95 or higher, as recommended by the CDC. Finally, put on a face shield for face and eye protection. Procedure Figure 2. Patient Wearing a Mask.Figure 3. Obtaining the Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimen.Masks are recommended for all patients suspected of having Covid-19 (Figure 2). Ask the patient to take off her mask and blow her nose into a tissue to clear excess secretions from the nasal passages. Remove the swab from the packaging. Tilt the patient’s head back slightly, so that the nasal passages become more accessible. Ask the patient to close her eyes to lessen the mild discomfort of the procedure. Gently insert the swab along the nasal septum, just above the floor of the nasal passage, to the nasopharynx, until resistance is felt (Figure 3). Insert the swab into the nostril, parallel to the palate. If you detect resistance to the passage of the swab, back off and try reinserting it at a different angle, closer to the floor of the nasal canal. The swab should reach a depth equal to the distance from the nostrils to the outer opening of the ear. The CDC recommends leaving the swab in place for several seconds to absorb secretions and then slowly removing the swab while rotating it. Your institution may also recommend rotating the swab in place several times before removing it. Ask the patient to reapply her mask. Handling of the Specimen Figure 4. Handling the Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimen.Open the collection tube and insert the swab into the tube. Break the swab at the groove and discard what remains of the swab. Close the labeled collection tube, wipe the tube with a surface-disinfectant wipe, and insert the tube into an open biohazard bag held by an assistant (Figure 4). Depending on institutional practices, you may instead return the sample to its original packaging for transport. Follow the CDC directions for direct processing of the swab specimen or placement of the swab in media with or without refrigeration. Removing Personal Protective Equipment Remove your PPE as shown in the video and described here or in accordance with the standards at your institution. First, remove your gown and gloves. Clean your hands with an alcohol-based solution or soap and water. Put on a new pair of gloves, and then remove your face shield and either dispose of it or clean and store it in accordance with the guidelines at your institution. Remove your gloves, rewash your hands, and put on another pair of gloves; then remove your mask and follow your institutional guidelines for disposal or reuse. Finally, remove the last pair of gloves and wash your hands. Summary This video demonstrates the collection of specimens from the surface of the respiratory mucosa with nasopharyngeal swabs for the diagnosis of Covid-19 in adults and in children. It is important to use approved PPE and the appropriate technique to minimize the possibility of spreading the virus. Ref Credit and Source of Information https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMvcm2010260?query=featured_coronavirus

  • SARS-CoV-2 surface protein (Spike) S1 Receptor Binding Domain undergoes conformational change

    Mycroft-West et al. (2020)Running title: SARS-CoV-2 surface S1 Receptor Binding Domain binds heparinThe 2019 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) surface protein (Spike) S1 Receptor Binding Domain undergoes conformational change upon heparin binding Many pathogens take advantage of the dependence of the host on the interaction of hundreds of extracellular proteins w/the glycosaminoglycans heparan sulphate to regulate homeostasis and use heparan sulphate as a means to adhere & gain access to cells. Moreover, mucosal epithelia such as that of the respiratory tract are protected by a layer of mucin polysaccharides, which are usually sulphated. The polydisperse, natural products of heparan sulphate and the allied polysaccharide,heparin have been found to be involved & prevent infection by a range of viruses including S-associated coronavirus strain HSR1.Here we use surface plasmon resonance & circular dichroism to measure the interaction between the SARS-CoV- 2 Spike S1 protein RBD (#SARS_CoV_2_S1_RBD)& #heparin. The data demonstrate an interaction between the recombinant surface receptor binding domain & polysaccharide. This has implications for the rapid development of a first-line therapeutic by repurposing heparin and for next-generation,tailor-made,GAG-based antivirals. Ref Source of Information https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.29.971093v2.full.pdf

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  • Research Forum | Corona ResearchGate

    To see this working, head to your live site. Research Forum Search Login / Sign up Covid-19 Central Database Write and share your research opinion on COVID-19, inspire researchers and scientist by sharing the information Sort by: Recent Activity Create New Post I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Omicron blindspots: why it’s hard to track coronavirus variants Researchers are racing to detect Omicron, the latest SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, by sequencing the genomes of coronaviruses infecting people. But surveillance through genomic sequencing can be slow Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jan 01 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic The emergence of the alpha, beta, and delta SARS-CoV-2 VoCs were associated with new waves of infections, sometimes across the entire world. For example, the increased transmissibility of the delta Vo Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Dec 06, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Identification of Human Single-Domain Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 The worldwide spread of COVID-19 highlights the need for an efficient approach to rapidly develop therapeutics and prophylactics against SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, containing the recept Views 1 comment 1 0 Recent Activity: Nov 04, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam SARS-CoV-2 vaccines strategies: a comprehensive review of phase 3 candidates The new SARS-CoV-2 virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family and causes COVID-19 disease. The newly sequenced virus appears to originate in China and rapidly spread throughout the Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jun 08, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory fail Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: May 07, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam COVID-19 patients detected by myocardial strain imaging using 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiography COVID-19 is a multiorgan systemic inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with COVID-19 often exhibit cardiac dysfunction and myocardial injury, but imaging evidence is lacking. In t Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 29, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19 The current revival of the American economy is being predicated on social distancing, specifically the Six-Foot Rule, a guideline that offers little protection from pathogen-bearing aerosol droplets s Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 27, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam SARS-CoV-2 can recruit a haem metabolite to evade antibody immunity The coronaviral spike is the dominant viral antigen and the target of neutralizing antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike binds biliverdin and bilirubin, the tetrapyrrole products of haem metabolis Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 26, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam The impact of viral mutations on recognition by SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells We identify amino acid variants within dominant SARS-CoV-2 T-cell epitopes by interrogating global sequence data. Several variants within nucleocapsid and ORF3a epitopes have arisen independently in m Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 23, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Native-like SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Expressed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 Vaccine Vaccine development against the SARS-CoV-2 virus focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Adenovirus-vectored vaccines offer an effective platfo Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 16, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam All eyes on a hurdle race for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine The catastrophic global health and socioeconomic impact of COVID-19, together with the absence of any clearly effective preventive or therapeutic remedies, has created a massive unmet medical need. Ra Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 11, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam The Hypothesis of Host Dysosmia and SARS-CoV-2: The respiratory condition COVID-19 arises in a human host upon the infection with SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus that was first acknowledged in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019 after its outbreak Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 08, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam An aberrant STAT pathway is central to COVID-19 COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by diverse clinical symptoms. Type I interferon (IFN-I) production is impaired and severe cases lead to ARDS and widespread coagulopathy. W Views 0 comments 0 1 Recent Activity: Feb 10, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 Importance Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread rapidly worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are a potential treatment for COVID-19. Objective To determine the effect of bamlanivima Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jan 30, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam COVID-19 and cancer in Africa The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on cancer prevention and control in Africa, with immediate and anticipated long-term ramifications. The pandemic reached Africa when the continent was alre Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jan 27, 2021 Vivian Creative Vaccine Discovery Services for SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine research and development has become very urgent with the emergence of new diseases, increased burden of infectious disease, and growing concern regarding vaccine safety. Creative Biolabs has Views 0 comments 0 2 Recent Activity: Dec 17, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern The Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution (TAG-VE) is an independent group of experts that periodically monitors and evaluates the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and assesses if specific mut Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Dec 01, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Genetics Reveals a Variable Infection Gradient in the Respiratory Tract The mode of acquisition and causes for the variable clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. We utilized a reverse genetics system to generate a GFP reporter virus to e Views 1 comment 1 0 Recent Activity: Aug 16, 2021 ksuniliee A Case Report Outcomes of Ayurvedic care in a COVID-19 patient with hypoxia One of the article published in NCBI This paper reports for the first time, the outcomes of Ayurvedic intervention in a COVID-19 patient with severe hypoxia requiring supportive oxygen therapy. Pati Views 1 comment 1 0 Recent Activity: May 21, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Household COVID-19 risk and in-person schooling In-person schooling has proved contentious and difficult to study throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from a massive online survey in the United States indicates an increased risk of COVID-19-rel Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: May 01, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Identified from SARS-CoV-2 as Immune Targets for Pre-Emptive Pan-Coronavirus Vaccines Over the last two decades, there have been three deadly human outbreaks of Coronaviruses (CoVs) caused by emerging zoonotic CoVs: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and the latest highly transmissible and deadly SAR Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 28, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19 Infection Importance Detailed information about the association of COVID-19 with outcomes in pregnant individuals compared with not-infected pregnant individuals is much needed. Objective To evaluate the risk Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 27, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Association between periodontitis and severity of COVID‐19 infection: A case–control study COVID‐19 is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response that can result in fatal outcomes. Systemic inflammation is also a main characteristic of periodontitis. Therefore, we investigated the Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 24, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies induced in breast milk after Pfizer-BioNTech/BNT162b2 vaccination After trials demonstrated 94-95% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), two 54 lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified messenger RNA-based vaccines received emergency u Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 21, 2021 ksuniliee AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine: EMA finds possible link to very rare cases of unusual blood clots with low blood platelets EMA confirms overall benefit-risk remains positive EMA’s safety committee ( PRAC ) has concluded today that unusual blood clots with low blood platelets should be listed as very rare side effects of Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 12, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Second wave COVID-19 pandemics in Europe: a temporal playbook A second wave pandemic constitutes an imminent threat to society, with a potentially immense toll in terms of human lives and a devastating economic impact. We employ the epidemic Renormalisation Gro Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Apr 09, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label non-randomised, first-in-human trial Background A vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is urgently needed. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus ty Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Mar 03, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Maintaining Safety with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines To date, the development of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a success story, with no serious concerns ident Views 0 comments 0 1 Recent Activity: Jan 30, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Coronavirus Cell Entry Occurs through the Endo-/Lysosomal Pathway in a Proteolysis-Dependent Manner Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fu Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jan 30, 2021 I_Dinakaran Pannerselvam Severely ill COVID-19 patients display impaired exhaustion features in SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cells The molecular properties of CD8 + T cells that respond to SARS-CoV-2 infection are not fully known. Here, we report on the single-cell transcriptomes of >80,000 virus-reactive CD8 + T cells, obtaine Views 0 comments 0 0 Recent Activity: Jan 25, 2021

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Forum Posts (461)

  • Omicron blindspots: why it’s hard to track coronavirus variants

    Researchers are racing to detect Omicron, the latest SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, by sequencing the genomes of coronaviruses infecting people. But surveillance through genomic sequencing can be slow and patchy, complicating the picture of how and where Omicron spreads. One positive development is that researchers are sequencing more SARS-CoV-2 genomes than ever before. This is what enabled them to notice Omicron relatively swiftly. Last April — about 16 months into the pandemic — an online database belonging to the GISAID data-science initiative contained one million SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences. Since then, researchers have submitted another five million sequences to GISAID in about eight months — a nearly tenfold rate increase (see ‘Genome explosion’). “We are in much better shape to find Omicron or any other emerging variant now,” says Kelly Wroblewski, director of infectious diseases at the Association of Public Health Laboratories in Silver Spring, Maryland All of these studies are evolving daily as new Omicron sequences pour in from around the world. A hint of how fast this field is moving can be seen in the rapid rise in genomes reported after the World Health Organization named Omicron a variant of concern on 26 November. Soon after the agency’s announcement, 15 countries submitted 187 genomic sequences belonging to Omicron to GISAID. By 14 December, 55 countries had shared 4,265 Omicron sequences. The figures are on course to balloon further — but Luo warns that’s not necessarily representative of how fast the variant is spreading. Many testing centres are preferentially sequencing samples after a simple, fast genotyping test picks up a possible signal for Omicron — a particular amino acid in the gene for its spike protein. As a result, Omicron might be overrepresented among SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences right now. Genomic information is biased and messy in so many ways, Luo says. “We have to be careful about what we take away from any one source of data.” Reference & source information: https://www.nature.com/ Read more on:

  • Potential effects of curcumin in the treatment of COVID-19 infection

    The main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is the presence of respiratory symptoms, but some patients develop severe cardiovascular and renal complications. There is an urgency to understand the mechanism by which this virus causes complications so as to develop treatment options. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, could be a potential treatment option for patients with coronavirus disease. In this study, we review some of the potential effects of curcumin such as inhibiting the entry of virus to the cell, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulating various cellular signaling pathways. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGES In this review, we have attempted an overview of the potential antiviral effects of curcumin that can be helpful for researchers to further investigate the potency of curcumin against the new emerging SARSCoV-2 infection. The ability of curcumin to modulate a wide range of molecular targets makes it a suitable candidate for the management of coronavirus infection. Curcumin may have beneficial effects against COVID-19 infection via its ability to modulate the various molecular targets that contribute to the attachment and internalization of SARS-CoV-2 in many organs, including the liver, cardiovascular system, and kidney. Curcumin could also modulate cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, apoptosis, and RNA replication. Curcumin may also suppress pulmonary edema and fibrosis-associated pathways in COVID-19 infection. Despite the potential beneficial effects and safety profile of curcumin against various diseases, the limited bioavailability of this turmericderived compound, especially via oral administration may be a problematic issue (Anand, Kunnumakkara, Newman, & Aggarwal, 2007). Yang et al. demonstrated that intravenous administration of curcumin (10 mg/kg) resulted in better bioavailability in comparison to oral administration with a higher dose (500 mg/kg) (K. Y. Yang, Lin, Tseng, Wang, & Tsai, 2007). Several clinical trials have shown that the issue regarding the bioavailability of curcumin can be mitigated by administering higher concentrations within non-toxic limits (Kunnumakkara et al., 2019). In addition, many studies have suggested various ways to improve the bioavailability of curcumin such as manipulation and encapsulation of curcumin into micelles, liposomes, phospholipid complexes, exosomes, or polymeric nanocarrier formulation and also utilization of curcumin in combination with cellulosic derivatives, natural antioxidants, and a hydrophilic carrier (Jäger et al., 2014; Moballegh Nasery et al., 2020). Moreover, several studies have reported the synergistic therapeutic effects of curcumin in combination with other natural or synthetic compounds (Singh et al., 2013). Overall, the welldocumented anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of curcumin along with the evidence on the anti-fibrotic and pulmonoprotective effects of this phytochemical on the lung tissue make it a promising candidate for the treatment of COVID-19. Since curcumin is known to have strong inhibitory effects on NF-κB and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can be particularly helpful as an adjunct in reversing the fatal cytokine storm that occurs in serious cases of COVID-19. 6 ZAHEDIPOUR ET AL. To sum up, this review shows that curcumin as an antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent can be helpful for both prevention and treatment of new emerging coronavirus. However, well-designed clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the potential efficacy of curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 infection and its ensuing complications. Reference & Source Information: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ Read more on :

  • Vaccine For Coronavirus Likely to be Available by September, Says Oxford Expert Sarah Gilbert

    Professor Sarah Gilbert, an expert of mediconology at the University of Oxford, said she is confident of a vaccine for novel coronavirus being available by September this year. Her claims comes in contradiction of most pharmaceutical wizards predicting an 18-month time frame to find either a vaccine or a cure to the COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 Ten Times Worse Than Swine Flu, Vaccine Needed to Fully Halt Disease: WHO.Londo: Professor Sarah Gilbert, an expert of mediconology at the University of Oxford, said she is confident of a vaccine for novel coronavirus being available by September this year. Her claims comes in contradiction of most pharmaceutical wizards predicting an 18-month time frame to find either a vaccine or a cure to the COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 Ten Times Worse Than Swine Flu, Vaccine Needed to Fully Halt Disease: WHO. Gilbert, while speaking to BBC Radio on Monday, said trials are being conducted across the world at an "unprecedented rate". In the University of Oxford as well, the process to screen over 500 volunteers - aged between 18 to 55 - for the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been expedited, she said. The manufacturers should be ready to produce the vaccine in bulk, she said, adding that billions across the globe would have to be vaccinated against the disease. The process to initiate manufacturing should not be kept on hold till the vaccine is confirmed to be successful, the professor added. "We need to start manufacturing large amounts of the vaccine. It is not uncommon for companies to start manufacturing a new vaccine before they really know for certain it works”, she told the radio channel during the morning show. The Oxford team, which was successful with its rapid vaccine response tests for Ebola in 2014, is hopeful of repeating the success with its coronavirus vaccine trials. The clinical tests are expected to begin next week, Gilbert said. She had last week told a leading magazine that her team is "80 percent sure" of developing the vaccine. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic infected more than 1,900,000 persons by the time this report was published. The death toll climbed to 118,497. The worst-affected is the United States, where over 600,000 are infected and the death toll has crossed the 23,000-mark. Italy and Spain have recorded over 20,000 and more than 17,000 deaths, respectively. Source www.nytimes.com

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